Parser independent interfaces; parser dependent implementation classes. Most programs must use the parser dependent classes. JAXP helps solve this.
Extensive use of polymorphism
Lots of casting
Language independence means there's very limited use of the Java class library; Various features are reinvented
Language independence requires no method overloading because not all languages support it.
Several features are poor design in Java, if not in other languages:
Named constants are often shorts
Only one kind of exception; details provided by constants
No Java-specific utility methods